Τρίτη, 30 Ιουλίου 2019

Anaesthesiology

Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided interscalene block vs. supraclavicular block for ambulatory arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: A randomised noninferiority study
BACKGROUND Ultrasound-guided interscalene block (ISB) is the reference technique for pain control after ambulatory upper limb surgery, but supraclavicular block (SCB) is an alternative. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of SCB vs. ISB in patients undergoing ambulatory arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR), with the hypothesis of noninferiority of SCB analgesia compared with ISB. DESIGN A randomised, single-blind, noninferiority study. SETTING Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz, Centre Paul Santy, Lyon, France. PATIENTS Ambulatory ARCR patients. INTERVENTION Patients were randomly allocated (1 : 1) to receive a single injection SCB or ISB, as well as general anaesthesia. All patients received a postoperative analgesic prescription for home use before leaving hospital (including fast-acting oral morphine sulphate). Patients completed a telephone questionnaire on days 1 and 2 postsurgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Primary endpoint was oral morphine consumption (mg) during the first 2 days postsurgery. If the difference between mean morphine consumption in the SCB vs. ISB group was less than 30 mg, noninferiority of SCB compared with ISB would be demonstrated. Secondary evaluation criteria included pain scores (numerical rating scale), duration of motor and sensory blockade, and satisfaction with treatment. RESULTS The per-protocol cohort included 103 patients (SCB = 52, ISB = 51) (57% men, median age 58 years). Mean morphine consumption in the 48 h postsurgery was 9.4 vs. 14.7 mg in the SCB and ISB groups, respectively (difference −5.3, P < 0.001). The upper limit of the 95% CI was less than 30 mg, demonstrating noninferiority of SCB compared with ISB. No difference was observed between the two groups in terms of pain scores or the duration of motor or sensory blockade. Overall, 98% of patients in the SCB group vs. 90% in the ISB group were satisfied with their treatment. CONCLUSION SCB is as effective as ISB in terms of postoperative analgesia based on oral morphine consumption in patients undergoing ambulatory ARCR. Trial registration: EudraCT number: 2016-A00747-47. Correspondence to Julien Cabaton, MD, Department of Anaesthesiology, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz, Centre Paul Santy, 24, avenue Paul Santy, Lyon 69008, France E-mail: cabaton.md@orthosanty.fr This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Virtual reality exposure before elective day care surgery to reduce anxiety and pain in children: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Pre-operative anxiety in children is very common and is associated with adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate if virtual reality exposure (VRE) as a preparation tool for elective day care surgery in children is associated with lower levels of anxiety, pain and emergence delirium compared with a control group receiving care as usual (CAU). DESIGN A randomised single-blind controlled trial. SETTING A single university children's hospital in the Netherlands from March 2017 to October 2018. PATIENTS Two-hundred children, 4 to 12 years old, undergoing elective day care surgery under general anaesthesia. INTERVENTION On the day of surgery, children receiving VRE were exposed to a realistic child-friendly immersive virtual version of the operating theatre, so that they could get accustomed to the environment and general anaesthesia procedures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was anxiety during induction of anaesthesia (modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale, mYPAS). Secondary outcomes were self-reported anxiety, self-reported and observed pain, emergence delirium, need for rescue analgesia (morphine) and parental anxiety. RESULTS A total of 191 children were included in the analysis. During induction of anaesthesia, mYPAS levels (median [IQR] were similar in VRE, 40.0 [28.3 to 58.3] and CAU, 38.3 [28.3 to 53.3]; P = 0.862). No differences between groups were found in self-reported anxiety, pain, emergence delirium or parental anxiety. However, after adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy, children in the VRE condition needed rescue analgesia significantly less often (55.0%) than in the CAU condition (95.7%) (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION In children undergoing elective day care surgery, VRE did not have a beneficial effect on anxiety, pain, emergence delirium or parental anxiety. However, after more painful surgery, children in the VRE group needed rescue analgesia significantly less often, a clinically important finding because of the side effects associated with analgesic drugs. Options for future research are to include children with higher levels of anxiety and pain and to examine the timing and duration of VRE. TRIAL REGISTRATION Netherlands Trial Registry: NTR6116 (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=6116). Correspondence to Elisabeth M.W.J. Utens, (Kp-2865), P.O. Box 2060, 3000 CB Rotterdam, the Netherlands E-mail: e.utens@erasmusmc.nl This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Comparison of neostigmine vs. sugammadex for recovery of muscle function after neuromuscular block by means of diaphragm ultrasonography in microlaryngeal surgery: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade or curarisation (PORC) is a risk directly related to the use of neuromuscular blocking agents during surgical procedures. Acceleromyography is distressing for conscious patients when assessing PORC. Diaphragm ultrasonography could be a valid alternative. OBJECTIVES The primary objective was to achieve a 28% lower incidence of PORC in patients who, after rocuronium administration, received neostigmine or sugammadex at 30 min after surgery. To assess PORC, diaphragm ultrasonography was used, and thickening fractioning [the difference of thickness at the end of inspiration (TEI) and at the end of expiration (TEE), normalised for TEE (TEI − TEE/TEE)] was measured. PORC was defined as thickening fractioning of 0.36 or less. The secondary object was the comparison, in the two treatment groups, of the return to baseline thickening fractioning at 30 min after surgery (ΔTF30). DESIGN Prospective, double-blind, single-centre randomised study. SETTING University Hospital Careggi, Florence, Italy. PATIENTS Patients of American Society Anesthesiologists' physical status 1 or 2, 18 to 80 years, receiving rocuronium during microlaryngeal surgery. INTERVENTIONS At the end of surgery participants were randomised to receive neostigmine (NEO group) or sugammadex (SUG group) as the reversal drug. Thickening fractioning and ΔTF30 were evaluated at baseline and at 0, 10 and 30 min after surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES TEE and TEI at each time point. RESULTS A total of 59 patients with similar demographic characteristics were enrolled. An association between lack of recovery (thickening fractioning ≤0.36) and drug treatment was only observed at 0 min (SUG vs. NEO, P < 0.05). Concerning ΔTF, at 30 min more patients in the SUG group returned to baseline than those in the NEO group (P < 0.001), after adjusting for side (P = 0.52), baseline thickening fractioning (P < 0.0001) and time of measurement (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION We found an early (0 min) but not long-lasting (30 min) association between diaphragm failure and treatment allocation; a full recovery in baseline diaphragm function was observed only in patients receiving sugammadex. We cannot exclude that further differences have not been found due to interpatients variability in assessing diaphragm contractility by ultrasonography. TRIAL REGISTRATION EudraCT Identifier: 2013-004787-62, Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02698969. Correspondence to Iacopo Cappellini, Section of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Florence, Italy E-mail: jacopocappellini@gmail.com © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Neuraxial labour analgesia is associated with a reduced risk of maternal depression at 2 years after childbirth: A multicentre, prospective, longitudinal study
BACKGROUND Severe labour pain is an important risk factor of postpartum depression, and early depression is associated with an increased risk of long-term depression; whereas the use of epidural analgesia during labour decreases the risk of postpartum depression. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether neuraxial labour analgesia was associated with a decreased risk of 2-year depression. DESIGN This was a multicentre, prospective, longitudinal study. SETTING The study was performed in Peking University First Hospital, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital and Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Beijing, China, between 1 August 2014 and 25 April 2017. PATIENTS Five hundred ninety-nine nulliparous women with single-term cephalic pregnancy preparing for vaginal delivery were enrolled. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Depressive symptoms were screened with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at delivery-room admission, 6-week postpartum and 2 years after childbirth. A score of 10 or higher was used as the threshold of depression. The primary endpoint was the presence of depression at 2 years after childbirth. The association between the use of neuraxial labour analgesia and the development of 2-year depression was analysed with a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS Five hundred and eight parturients completed 2-year follow-up. Of these, 368 (72.4%) received neuraxial analgesia during labour and 140 (27.6%) did not. The percentage with 2-year depression was lower in those with neuraxial labour analgesia than in those without (7.3 [27/368] vs. 13.6% [19/140]; P = 0.029). After correction for confounding factors, the use of neuraxial analgesia during labour was associated with a significantly decreased risk of 2-year depression (odds ratio 0.455, 95% confidence interval 0.230 to 0.898; P = 0.023). CONCLUSION For nulliparous women with single-term cephalic pregnancy planning for vaginal delivery, the use of neuraxial analgesia during labour was associated with a reduced risk of maternal depression at 2 years after childbirth. TRIAL REGISTRATION www.chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-OCH-14004888 and ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02823418. Correspondence to Dong-Xin Wang, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, No. 8 Xishiku Street, Beijing 100034, China Tel: +86 10 83572784; fax: +86 10 66551057; e-mail: wangdongxin@hotmail.com Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.ejanaesthesiology.com). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Guidewire-assisted vs. direct radial arterial cannulation in neonates and infants: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Cannulation of the radial artery is challenging to perform in neonates and infants because of the small vessel size. OBJECTIVE To compare guidewire-assisted with direct radial artery cannulation in neonates and infants. DESIGN A randomised controlled study. SETTING A tertiary university hospital from 7 August 2017 to 4 July 2018. PATIENTS Ninety neonates and infants who required radial artery cannulation during general anaesthesia. INTERVENTIONS All patients were allocated randomly into the guidewire group (guidewire-assisted cannulation, n=45) or control group (direct cannulation, n=45). Radial artery cannulation was performed under general anaesthesia. The contralateral radial artery was used if the arterial cannulation was not successful within two attempts. After the second failure in the contralateral radial artery, the case was considered a failure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was the first-attempt success rate of radial artery cannulation. The secondary outcomes included the overall success rate, overall procedure time, number of attempts and use of the contralateral radial artery for radial artery cannulation. RESULTS The guidewire group showed a higher first-attempt success rate [76 vs. 56%; P = 0.046; odds ratio (OR) 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) of odds 1.01 to 6.08] and overall success rate (96 vs. 76%; P = 0.007; OR 6.96; 95% CI 1.44 to 33.52) than the control group. The overall procedure time was not significantly different between the guidewire group (median [IQR] 36 [28.0 to 70.5] s) and control group (98 [23.5 to 465.0] s; P = 0.400). There was no difference in the median number of attempts between the two groups (P = 0.454). However, use of the contralateral radial artery was significantly lower in the guidewire group (17.8%) than in the control group (40%; P = 0.020; OR 0.324, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.86). Kaplan–Meier analysis of the overall procedure time to successful radial artery cannulation showed that the overall success rate was significantly higher in the guidewire group than in the control group (P = 0.019). CONCLUSION For radial artery cannulation in neonates and infants, guidewire-assisted radial artery cannulation showed superiority over the direct technique in terms of first-attempt success rate and overall success rate without delaying the procedure time. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT03217019). Correspondence to Prof Jin-Tae Kim, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehakno, Jongnogu, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea Tel: +82 2 2072 3295; fax: +82 2 745 5587; e-mail: jintae73@gmail.com © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Does programmed intermittent epidural bolus improve childbirth conditions of nulliparous women compared with patient-controlled epidural analgesia?: A multicentre, prospective, controlled, randomised, triple-blind study
BACKGROUND Epidural analgesia may change the mechanics of childbirth. These changes are related to the concentration of the local anaesthetic used epidurally but probably also to its mode of delivery into the epidural space. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the administration of programmed intermittent epidural boluses (PIEB) improves the mechanics of second-stage labour compared with patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with a background infusion. DESIGN Prospective, controlled, randomised, triple-blind study. SETTING Multicentre study including four level III maternity units, January 2014 until June 2016. PATIENTS A total of 298 nulliparous patients in spontaneous labour were randomised to a PIEB or PCEA group. INTERVENTION After epidural initiation with 15 ml of 0.1% levobupivacaine containing 10 μg of sufentanil, patients received either an hourly bolus of 8 ml (PIEB) or a continuous rate infusion of 8 ml h−1 (PCEA): the drug mixture used was levobupivacaine 0.1% and sufentanil 0.36 μg ml−1. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of objective labour events: a posterior occiput position in the second stage, an occiput position at birth, waiting time at full cervical dilatation before active maternal pushing more than 3 h, maternal active pushing duration more than 40 min, and foetal heart rate alterations. Vaginal instrumental delivery rates, analgesia and motor blockade scores were also recorded. RESULTS From the 298 patients randomised, data from 249 (124 PIEB, 125 PCEA) were analysed. No difference was found in the primary outcome: 48.0% (PIEB) and 45.5% (PCEA) of patients, P = 0.70. In addition, no difference was observed between the groups for each of the individual events of the composite endpoint, nor in the instrumental vaginal delivery rate, nor in the degree of motor blockade. Despite an equivalent volume of medication in the groups, a significantly higher analgesia score at full dilatation was observed in the PIEB group, odds-ratio = 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 3.5), P = 0.04. CONCLUSION The mechanics of the second stage did not differ whether PIEB or PCEA was used. Analgesic conditions appeared to be superior with PIEB, especially at full dilation. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinical trial number: NCT01856166. Correspondence to Estelle Morau, CHU Arnaud de Villeneuve, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5, France E-mail: estelle.morau@hotmail.fr © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Comparison of a simplified nasal continuous positive airways pressure device with nasal cannula in obese patients undergoing colonoscopy during deep sedation: A randomised clinical trial
BACKGROUND Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) with a CPAP machine and mask has been shown to be more effective at minimising hypoxaemia than other devices under deep sedation. However, the efficacy of a new and simple CPAP device for spontaneously breathing obese patients during colonoscopy is unknown. OBJECTIVE We hypothesised that oxygenation and ventilation in obese patients under deep sedation during colonoscopy using CPAP via a new nasal mask (SuperNO2VA) would be better than routine care with oxygen supplementation via a nasal cannula. DESIGN Randomised study. SETTING Single-centre, June 2017 to October 2017. PATIENTS A total of 174 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to Mask group or Control group. Thirty-eight patients were excluded and data from 136 patients underwent final analysis. INTERVENTION Patients in the Mask group were provided with nasal CPAP (10 cmH2O) at an oxygen flow rate of 15 l min−1. In the Control group, patients were given oxygen via a nasal cannula at a flow rate of 5 l min−1. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was elapsed time from anaesthesia induction to the first airway intervention. RESULTS The elapsed time from anaesthesia induction to the first airway intervention was 19 ± 10 min in the Mask group (n=63) vs. 10 ± 12 min in the Control group (n=73, P < 0.001). In all, 87.5% (56/64) of patients achieved the target CPAP value. More patients in the Control group (63%) received airway intervention than in the Mask group (22%) (P < 0.001). Hypoxaemia (pulse oximeter oxygen saturation, SpO2 < 90%) occurred more frequently in the Control group (22%) than in the Mask group (5%) (P = 0.004). Minute ventilationPostinduction/minute ventilationBaseline and minute ventilationProcedure-end/minute ventilationBaseline was lower in the Control group than in the Mask group (P = 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION Application of a nasal mask at a target CPAP of 10 cmH2O improves ventilation and decreases the frequency and severity of hypoxaemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT03139448, registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Correspondence to Koffi Kla, MD, Department of Anaesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre, 1301 Medical Centre Drive, 4648 TVC, Nashville, TN 37232-5614, USA Tel: +1 615 343 9419; e-mail: koffi.m.kla@vanderbilt.edu © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Functional MRI: basic principles and emerging clinical applications for anaesthesiology and the neurological sciences
No abstract available

Validation of 3-minute diagnostic interview for CAM-defined Delirium to detect postoperative delirium in the recovery room: A prospective diagnostic study
BACKGROUND Recent guidelines on postoperative delirium (POD) recommend POD screening in all patients, using a validated tool, starting in the recovery room. An operationalisation of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) criteria, the 3-Minute Diagnostic Interview for CAM-defined Delirium (3D-CAM), has been developed for use in general medical units. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate 3D-CAM performance in an adult patient population to detect POD in the recovery room. DESIGN A prospective diagnostic study. SETTING Recovery room of a tertiary care university hospital in Berlin, Germany, in 2017. PATIENTS Patients at least 18 years of age undergoing elective surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Patients were subjected to evaluation by blinded investigators using the 3D-CAM and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5, reference standard). Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were analysed for 3D-CAM, in addition to test–retest and inter-rater reliability analyses. RESULTS Sixteen out of 176 patients (9.1%) developed POD. The 3D-CAM demonstrated strong test performance (specificity 0.88, sensitivity 1.0, area under the curve 0.94, PPV 0.44 and NPV 1.0), with a test–retest reliability of 90% (n = 10) and inter-rater reliability of 80% (n = 10). CONCLUSION In this diagnostic study, 3D-CAM showed strong performance for detection of POD in the recovery room. Due to the low training requirements, fast application and high sensitivity, it might be particularly appropriate for clinical staff with limited experience in the assessment of POD. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02992717 Correspondence to Claudia D. Spies, MD, Department of Anesthesiology and Operative Intensive Care Medicine (CCM, CVK), Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin D-13353, Germany Tel: +49 30 450 551102/+49 30 450 531012; e-mail: claudia.spies@charite.de Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.ejanaesthesiology.com). © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Comparison of low and high positive end-expiratory pressure during low tidal volume ventilation in robotic gynaecological surgical patients using electrical impedance tomography: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND The appropriate level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during intra-operative mechanical ventilation remains unclear. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of PEEP with low tidal volume (low-VT) ventilation in a steep Trendelenburg position (30°) and pneumoperitoneum on oxygenation, respiratory mechanics and ventilation distribution using electrical impedance tomography. DESIGN A randomised controlled trial. SETTING Single university secondary care centre, conducted from January 2017 to December 2017. PATIENTS Forty female patients, aged 20 to 60 years, and of American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) physical status 1 or 2, undergoing elective robotic gynaecological surgery were included. INTERVENTION Forty patients were allocated randomly to a PEEP4 (PEEP 4 cmH2O) group or a PEEP8 (PEEP 8 cmH2O) group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcomes were respiratory mechanics. The secondary outcomes included changes in ventilation distribution across the ventral and dorsal regions of interest and postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) using a modified clinical pulmonary infection score. RESULTS There was no difference in PaO2 at any time point. The peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) and mean airway pressure (Paw) of the PEEP4 group were lower than those of the PEEP8 group (P < 0.001). The oxygenation factor in the PEEP4 group was higher than that in the PEEP8 group during mechanical ventilation at all times. There was no difference in the fractional distribution of end-expiratory ventilation according to region of interest between the two groups. CONCLUSION Both 4 and 8 cmH2O of PEEP with low-VT ventilation can be used for robotic gynaecological surgery that requires a steep Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum. However, 8 cmH2O of PEEP had no benefit over 4 cmH2O of PEEP with respect to oxygenation and improvement of dorsal regional ventilation. TRIAL REGISTRATION The trial was registered at the Clinical Trial Registry of Korea (KCT0002255). https://cris.nih.go.kr Correspondence to Hee Jung Baik, MD, PhD, Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, 1071 Anyangcheon-ro, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul 07985, Republic of Korea Tel: +82 2 2650 2868; fax: +82 2 2655 2924; e-mail: baikhj@ewha.ac.kr © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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