Τρίτη, 30 Ιουλίου 2019

Immunotherapy for cancer in people living with HIV: safety with an efficacy signal from the series in real life experience
imageObjective: To report efficacy and tolerance of nivolumab or pembrolizumab, PD-1 inhibitors, in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and cancer. Design: Series of PLWHIV cancer patients treated with anti-PD1 agents in real-life clinical practice. Methods: From May 2014 to January 2019, 575 HIV-infected patients have been discussed in the French CANCERVIH national multidisciplinary board and included in the network database. Twenty-three patients were treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors in daily practice. We report the demographic characteristics, CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV viral loads, safety and efficacy data of these 23 PLWHIV treated in routine practice with nivolumab or pembrolizumab for nonsmall cell lung cancer (n = 21), melanoma (n = 1) and head and neck cancer (n = 1) retrospectively collected from the database CANCERVIH network. The median CD4+ T-cell count at treatment initiation was 370 cells/μl (IQR: 125–1485). HIV viral load was undetectable in all patients. Results: As of 29 April 2019, with a median follow-up of 10.8 months (2.0–27.7), the median number of injections was 6 (IQR: 4–18). Only two grade 3 adverse reactions were reported (no toxic deaths or immune-related deaths). Among the 23 patients, a partial response was observed in five patients (22%), a stabilization for five (22%) and a progression in 13 (57%). Only one patient experienced a positive HIV viral load, but this occurred following ART interruption. Conclusion: Treatment with PD-1 inhibitors seems to have an efficacy signal and be well tolerated in PLWHIV, including impact on CD4+ lymphocyte count and HIV load, that should be monitored during treatment course (regarding real-life experience).
Profile of neuronal exosomes in HIV cognitive impairment exposes sex differences
imageObjective: To use plasma neuron-derived exosomes (NDEs) to detect proteins that diagnose HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). To compare NDE cargo from HAND with Alzheimer's disease. Design: Eighty plasma samples were assayed including men (n = 29) and women (n = 51) with and without HAND. Methods: Plasma NDEs were isolated by immunoadsorption with neuron specific L1 cell adhesion molecule antibody. NDE proteins were quantified by ELISA and proximity extension assays for 184 targets. Results: Neuronal enrichment of NDE was confirmed with elevated synaptophysin and normalized to the exosomal marker, apoptosis-linked gene-2-interacting protein X (ALIX). NDE from men and women had significant divergent results. High mobility group box 1 and neurofilament light were significantly increased in NDE from cognitively impaired men and were unchanged in women. NDE from HIV+ men had decreased p-T181-tau, a marker increased in Alzheimer's disease, compared with no difference in women. NDE amyloid beta was not increased in cognitive impairment. Proximity extension assays analysis showed 25 proteins were differentially expressed in HIV infection alone. Seven proteins identified asymptomatic and mild cognitive impairment in HIV+ women. NDE from women had significantly decreased cathepsin S, total tau, neuronal cell adhesion molecule and contactin 5 in mild impairment. Twelve proteins were increased in NDE from cognitively impaired men, including carboxypeptidase M, cadherin 3, colony stimulating factor 2 receptor alpha subunit and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotropic factor. Conclusion: NDE proteins differ in HIV infection alone and cognitive impairment between men and women suggesting mechanistic sex differences associated with HAND. Several NDE targets are different from that reported for Alzheimer's disease.
The anti-inflammatory IL-37/SIGIRR axis is functionally compromised in HIV infection
imageBackground: IL-37 is a member of the IL-1 family with potent anti-inflammatory effects. Little is known about regulation of the cytokine and of its signaling co-receptor SIGIRR in HIV infection. Objectives: Our main objective was to investigate how production of the cytokine and expression of SIGIRR on immune cells is regulated in HIV infection. Methods: The study was conducted using biological samples from a cross section of HIV-infected individuals. Concentrations of IL-37, TNF-α and soluble form of SIGIRR in serum samples were determined by ELISA. The expression of SIGIRR on immune cells was determined by flow cytometry. IL-37 isoform-specific transcripts were determined in PBMC by RT-PCR using isoform-specific primers. The effects of exogenous IL-37 on HIV replication in human phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) blasts were determined in in-vitro assays. Results: The cytokine concentrations tended to decrease in treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals. They were higher in treated HIV-infected individuals compared with those from treatment-naive ones. Higher concentrations of the cytokine were observed in sera from LTNP. The expression of SIGIRR on immune cells was decreased in HIV-infected individuals. On the other hand, its soluble form increased in the sera in these individuals. The trend was reversed in the patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment. Soluble SIGIRR attenuated anti-inflammatory effects of the cytokine. Serum IL-37 and soluble SIGIRR concentrations correlated with certain clinical parameters of the patients. Furthermore, recombinant human IL-37 inhibited HIV replication in human PHA blasts. Conclusion: The IL-37/SIGIRR axis is functionally compromised in HIV-infected individuals. Targeting the axis may alleviate inflammation and decrease HIV replication in this viral infection.
HIV-mediated immune aging in young adults infected perinatally or during childhood
imageBackground: HIV-infected patients progressing towards disease present a premature immune aging profile, characterized by the exhaustion of lymphopoiesis. The development of these anomalies may be prevented in young HIV-infected patients owing to their robust immune resources and lymphocyte regeneration capacities. Methods: An immunomonitoring substudy was designed for young adults aged between 18 and 25 years, living with HIV since childhood included in the national ANRS Co19 COVERTE Cohort. We compared markers associated with immune aging, including the frequency of circulating hematopoietic progenitors and the phenotype of lymphocyte populations, with those of patients infected with HIV in adulthood. Results: HIV-infected young adults displayed decreasing numbers of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and mature lymphocytes, indicative of general lymphopenia and reminiscent of the alterations found in patients infected in adulthood or uninfected elderly people. This highlights the strong impact of HIV on the immune system despite patient's young age at infection. Immune aging-related alterations were particularly obvious in young patients who presented high viral loads. Conclusion: HIV-infected young adults can present increased markers of immune activation and senescence, related to uncontrolled viral replication. This highlights the issue of noncompliance to antiretroviral therapy in patients at a young age, resulting in loss of viral control, premature immunosenescence, and potentially irreversible damage of their lymphopoietic system.
History of tuberculosis is associated with lower exhaled nitric oxide levels in HIV-infected children
imageObjective: HIV disrupts host defense mechanisms and maintains chronic inflammation in the lung. Nitric oxide is a marker of lung inflammation and can be measured in the exhaled air. We investigated the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), HIV status and airway abnormalities in perinatally HIV-infected children aged 6–19 years. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy and HIV-uninfected children with no active tuberculosis (TB) or acute respiratory tract infection were recruited from a public hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe. Clinical history was collected and eNO testing and spirometry was performed. The association between eNO and explanatory variables (HIV, FEV1 z-score, CD4+ cell count, viral load, history of TB) was investigated using linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and time of eNO testing. Results: In total, 222 HIV-infected and 97 HIV-uninfected participants were included. Among HIV-infected participants, 57 (25.7%) had a history of past TB; 56 (25.2%) had airway obstruction, but no prior TB. HIV status was associated with lower eNO level [mean ratio 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.65–0.97), P = 0.03]. Within the HIV-infected group, history of past TB was associated with lower eNO levels after controlling for age, sex and time of eNO testing [0.79 (95% CI 0.67–0.94), P = 0.007]. Conclusion: HIV infection and history of TB were associated with lower eNO levels. eNO levels may be a marker of HIV and TB-induced alteration in pulmonary physiology; further studies focused on potential causes for lower eNO levels in HIV and TB are warranted.
IL-4 polymorphism influences susceptibility to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-positive patients
imageObjectives: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients. Polymorphisms in immune genes are increasingly reported to influence susceptibility to fungal infections. We analysed the role of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 19 candidate genes on PJP development in patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Design and methods: The analysis included patients with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count less than 200 cells/μl, divided into a discovery (N = 1645) and a replication (N = 1861) cohort. The associations were analysed by using cumulative incidence curves as well as competing risk regression over 18 years, starting from the estimated date of HIV infection, considering death a competing risk, with censoring at lost follow-up, and assuming the dominant mode of inheritance. Results: The minor allele of rs2243250 in IL-4 was associated with the risk of PJP in the discovery cohort (cumulative incidence 0.18 versus 0.12, P = 0.002). This association was replicated in the validation cohort (0.16 versus 0.12, P = 0.02). It was still significant in multivariate models, adjusted for HIV transmission mode, viral load, CD4+ T cells slope, age, antiretroviral therapy, tobacco smoking, hepatitis C virus coinfection, year of cohort entry and PJP prophylaxis (global subhazard ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.17–1.73, P = 0.0004). Conclusion: Our data suggest rs2243250, a single nucleotide polymorphism known to influence IL-4 production, is associated with susceptibility to PJP in HIV-positive patients.
Drug resistance and optimizing dolutegravir regimens for adolescents and young adults failing antiretroviral therapy
imageObjectives: The integrase strand inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) combined with tenofovir and lamivudine (TLD) is a single tablet regimen recommended for 1st, 2nd and 3rd-line public health antiretroviral therapy (ART). We determined drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and evaluated the predictive efficacy of a TLD containing regimen for viremic adolescents and young adults in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods: We sequenced plasma viral RNA from HIV-1-infected adolescents and young adults on 1st and 2nd-line ART with confirmed virologic failure (viral load >1000 copies/ml) and calculated total genotypic susceptibility scores to current 2nd, 3rd line and DTG regimens. Results: A total of 160 participants were genotyped; 112 (70%) on 1st line and 48 (30%) on 2nd line, median (interquartile range) age 18 (15–19) and duration of ART (interquartile range) was 6 (4–8) years. Major DRMs were present in 94 and 67% of 1st and 2nd-line failures, respectively (P < 0.001). Dual class resistance to nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nonnucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors was detected in 96 (60%) of 1st-line failures; protease inhibitor DRMs were detected in a minority (10%) of 2nd-line failures. A total genotypic susceptibility score of 2 or less may risk protease inhibitor or DTG monotherapy in 11 and 42% of 1st-line failures switching to 2nd-line protease inhibitor and TLD respectively. Conclusion: Among adolescents and young adults, current protease inhibitor-based 2nd-line therapies are poorly tolerated, more expensive and adherence is poor. In 1st-line failure, implementation of TLD for many adolescents and young adults on long-term ART may require additional active drug(s). Drug resistance surveillance and susceptibility scores may inform strategies for the implementation of TLD.
Comparative efficacy and safety and dolutegravir and lamivudine in treatment naive HIV patients
imageObjective: Compare the efficacy and safety of the 2-drug antiretroviral therapy regimen dolutegravir + lamivudine (DTG + 3TC) with traditional 3-drug regimens in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1. Design: Data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials of at least 48 weeks’ duration in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 identified by systematic review were evaluated using a Bayesian network meta-analysis methodology. Methods: The primary outcome was virologic suppression at Week 48 for 3-drug regimens versus DTG + 3TC (also analyzed in patient subgroup with baseline viral load >100 000 RNA copies/ml). Secondary outcomes included CD4+ cell count change from baseline and safety (adverse events, serious adverse events, and drug-related adverse events) at Week 48. Results: The network contains 14 unique regimens from 14 randomized controlled trials based on data from 10 043 patients. The proportional difference for viral suppression at 48 weeks for DTG + 3TC versus the other 13 regimens included in the network ranged from −2.7% (−11.0, 5.6%) versus DTG + tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (FTC) to 7.3% (0.6, 13.8%) versus efavirenz + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/FTC. DTG + 3TC was found to be significantly better than efavirenz + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/FTC and similar to all other regimens analysed in terms of viral suppression at 48 weeks. With regard to other outcomes (CD4+, adverse event, serious adverse event, drug-related adverse events) at 48 weeks, DTG+3TC was broadly similar to all regimens analysed. Conclusion: This network meta-analysis demonstrates similar efficacy and safety outcomes over 48 weeks with DTG + 3TC compared with traditional 3-drug antiretroviral therapy regimens.
HIV diagnostic challenges in breast-fed infants of mothers on antiretroviral therapy
imageBackground: Prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected infants is strongly recommended but diagnostic confirmation is important as committing children to life-long ART carries serious health and social implications. Methods: Two HIV-exposed infants in Johannesburg, South Africa were identified presenting with unusual trajectories of diagnostic nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) and viral load results. Results: Case 1 had repeat indeterminate NAAT results during the first 3 weeks of life; repeat testing thereafter was negative with undetectable viral load including after daily nevirapine prophylaxis ended. ART was not initiated at this time. Case 2 had a single positive NAAT result at 1 month of age that prompted initiation of ART. Subsequent results were negative and ART was discontinued. Repeat negative NAAT with viral load below the limit of quantification or undetectable continued to be obtained. Shortly after and around weaning, positive NAAT results with high viral load (7.1 and 6.03 log10 copies/ml for Cases 1 and 2, respectively) were observed in both children. Both mothers were treated with tenofovir, emtricitabine and efavirenz during breastfeeding. Testing with ultrasensitive assays on early samples conclusively revealed HIV-1 proviral DNA in Case 1. Testing with ultrasensitive assays after the early period but prior to weaning did not detect HIV in either infant. Conclusion: We hypothesize that breast milk from the mothers of these two rare cases had HIV-specific or nonspecific factors that led to the undetectable results in already infected infants until breastfeeding ended. Our results raise the importance of repeat testing of HIV-exposed breast-fed infants after complete cessation of all breastfeeding.
HIV elite control is associated with reduced TRAILshort expression
imageObjective: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) dependent apoptosis has been implicated in CD4+ T-cell death and immunologic control of HIV-1 infection. We have described a splice variant called TRAILshort, which is a dominant negative ligand that antagonizes TRAIL-induced cell death in the context of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 elite controllers naturally control viral replication for largely unknown reasons. Since enhanced death of infected cells might be responsible, as might occur in situations of low (or inhibited) TRAILshort, we tested whether there was an association between elite controller status and reduced levels of TRAILshort expression. Design: Cohort study comparing TRAILshort and full length TRAIL expression between HIV-1 elite controllers and viremic progressors from two independent populations. Methods: TRAILshort and TRAIL gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by RNA-seq. TRAILshort and TRAIL protein expression in plasma was determined by antibody bead array and proximity extension assay respectively. Results: HIV-1 elite controllers expressed less TRAILshort transcripts in PBMCs (P = 0.002) and less TRAILshort protein in plasma (P < 0.001) than viremic progressors. Conclusion: Reduced TRAILshort expression in PBMCs and plasma is associated with HIV-1 elite controller status.

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