Δευτέρα, 19 Αυγούστου 2019

Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of Enterococcus durans bacteremia: a 20-year experience in a tertiary care hospital

Abstract

While the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium bacteremia are well known, those of E. durans bacteremia are still largely unclear. We retrospectively identified 80 adult E. durans bacteremia cases treated at our 2700-bed tertiary care hospital between January 1997 and December 2016. We compared the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of the adult patients with E. durans bacteremia (case group) with those of E. faecalis and E. faecium bacteremia cases (two control groups). The case and control groups were matched for sex, age, and date of onset of bacteremia. E. durans was responsible for 1.2% of all enterococcal bacteremia cases at our hospital. Of 80 cases, 39 (48.8%) had biliary tract infection and 18 (22.5%) had urinary tract infection. Community-onset bacteremia was more frequent in the case group than in the control groups (56.2% vs. 35.0% vs. 21.2%, p < 0.01). Infective endocarditis tended to be more common in the E. durans group (7.5% vs. 1.2% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.05). The majority of E. durans isolates were susceptible to penicillin (66/76, 86.8%), ampicillin (67/76, 88.2%), and vancomycin (75/76, 98.7%). The case group had significantly lower all-cause mortality (20.0% vs. 31.2% vs. 42.5%, p < 0.01) and bacteremia-related mortality (2.5% vs. 16.2% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.01) than the control groups. E. durans bacteremia mainly originates from the biliary or urinary tract and is associated with a lower risk of mortality.

Quality of molecular detection of vancomycin resistance in enterococci: results of 6 consecutive years of Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) external quality assessment

Abstract

The quality of PCR to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was evaluated by analysing their performance in six consecutive external quality assessment (EQA) schemes, organized annually since 2013 by Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics.VRE EQA panels consisted of 12–14 heat-inactivated samples. Sensitivity was tested with vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium), vanB-positive E. faecium, E. faecalis or E. gallinarum or vanC-positive E. gallinarum in different concentrations. Vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus or sample matrix was used to study the specificity. Participants were asked to report the VRE resistance status of each sample. The detection rate of vanA-positive samples was already 95% in the 2013 EQA panel (range 94–97%) and remained stable over the years. The 2013 detection rate of vanB-positive samples was 82% but increased significantly by more than 10% in subsequent years (96% in 2014, 95% in 2015, 92% in 2016 and 93% in 2017/2018, p < 0.05). The vanC detection rate by the limited number of assays specifically targeting this gene was lower compared to vanA/B (range 55–89%). The number of false positives in the true-negative sample (8% in 2013 to 1.4% in 2018) as well as the van-gene-negative bacterial samples (4% in 2013 to 0% in 2018) declined over the years. In the six years of VRE proficiency testing to date, the detection of vanA-positive strains was excellent and an increased sensitivity in vanB detection as well as an increase in specificity was observed. Commercial and in-house assays performed equally well.

Factors associated with ventilator-associated events: an international multicenter prospective cohort study

Abstract

A secondary analysis of a prospective multicenter cohort was performed in six intensive care units (ICU) in four European countries (France, Greece, Spain and Turkey). The main objective was to identify factors associated with ventilator-associated events (VAEs) in adults who underwent mechanical ventilation (MV) ≥ 48 h. Secondary objectives were to identify: variables influencing VAE in the subpopulation with endotracheal intubation and in those subjects who were ventilated > 7 days. Subjects who had undergone MV ≥ 48 h were included. In subjects with multiple episodes of MV, only the first one was eligible. The adult definitions for VAEs were adjusted to the 2015 update of the CDC’s 2013 National Healthcare Safety Network Association. Factors associated with VAE were estimated through multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Among 163 adults (42 tracheostomies), 76 VAEs (34.9 VAEs/1,000 ventilator-days) were documented: 9 were Ventilator-Associated Conditions (VAC) and 67 Infection-related Ventilator-Associated Complications (IVAC)-plus (9 only IVAC and 58 Possible Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia). VAEs developed after a median of 6 days (interquartile range: 4–9). VAEs were independently associated with long-acting sedative/analgesic drugs (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 4.30), selective digestive decontamination (SDD) (HR: 0.38), and surgical/trauma admission (HR: 2.30). Among 116 subjects with endotracheal tube, SDD (HR: 0.21) and surgical/trauma admission (HR: 3.11) remained associated with VAE. Among 102 subjects ventilated >7 days, only long-acting sedative/analgesic agents (HR: 8.69) remained independently associated with VAE. In summary, SDD implementation and long-acting analgesic/sedative agents restriction prescription may prevent early and late VAEs, respectively. Bundles developed to prevent VAEs should include these two interventions.

Health sequelae of human cryptosporidiosis—a 12-month prospective follow-up study

Abstract

To investigate long-term health sequelae of cryptosporidiosis, with especial reference to post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). A prospective cohort study was carried out. All patients with laboratory-confirmed, genotyped cryptosporidiosis in Wales, UK, aged between 6 months and 45 years of age, over a 2-year period were contacted. Five hundred and five patients agreed to participate and were asked to complete questionnaires (paper or online) at baseline, 3 and 12 months after diagnosis. The presence/absence of IBS was established using the Rome III criteria for different age groups. Two hundred and five of 505 cases completed questionnaires (40% response rate). At 12 months, over a third of cases reported persistent abdominal pain and diarrhoea, 28% reported joint pain and 26% reported fatigue. At both 3 and 12 months, the proportion reporting fatigue and abdominal pain after Cryptosporidium hominis infection was statistically significantly greater than after C. parvum. Overall, 10% of cases had sufficient symptoms to meet IBS diagnostic criteria. A further 27% met all criteria except 6 months’ duration and another 23% had several features of IBS but did not fulfil strict Rome III criteria. There was no significant difference between C. parvum and C. hominis infection with regard to PI-IBS. Post-infectious gastrointestinal dysfunction and fatigue were commonly reported after cryptosporidiosis. Fatigue and abdominal pain were significantly more common after C. hominis compared to C. parvum infection. Around 10% of people had symptoms meriting a formal diagnosis of IBS following cryptosporidiosis. Using age-specific Rome III criteria, children as well as adults were shown to be affected.

Phenotypic screening for quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli

Abstract

Recent studies show that rectal colonization with low-level ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli (ciprofloxacin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) above the epidemiological cutoff point, but below the clinical breakpoint for resistance), i.e., in the range > 0.06–0.5 mg/L is an independent risk factor for febrile urinary tract infection after transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-B) of the prostate, adding to the other risk posed by established ciprofloxacin resistance in E. coli (MIC > 0.5 mg/L) as currently defined. We aimed to identify the quinolone that by disk diffusion best discriminates phenotypic wild-type isolates (ciprofloxacin MIC ≤ 0.06 mg/L) of E. coli from isolates with acquired resistance, and to determine the resistance genotype of each isolate. The susceptibility of 108 E. coli isolates was evaluated by ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nalidixic acid, and pefloxacin disk diffusion and correlated to ciprofloxacin MIC (broth microdilution) using EUCAST methodology. Genotypic resistance was identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. The specificity was 100% for all quinolone disks. Sensitivity varied substantially, as follows: ciprofloxacin 59%, levofloxacin 46%, moxifloxacin 59%, nalidixic acid 97%, and pefloxacin 97%. We suggest that in situations where low-level quinolone resistance might be of importance, such as when screening for quinolone resistance in fecal samples pre-TRUS-B, a pefloxacin (S ≥ 24 mm) or nalidixic acid (S ≥ 19 mm) disk, or a combination of the two, should be used. In a setting where plasmid-mediated resistance is prevalent, pefloxacin might perform better than nalidixic acid.

Zika virus in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia: are there health risks for travelers?

Abstract

Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia have reported first cases of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection since 2010 (Cambodia) and 2016 (Vietnam and Laos). One case of ZIKV-related microcephaly was recognized among a hundred infected cases in these areas, raising a great concern about the health risk related to this virus infection. At least 5 cases of ZIKV infection among travelers to Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia were recorded. It is noticeable that ZIKV in these areas can cause birth defects. This work aims to discuss the current epidemics of ZIKV in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia and update the infection risk of ZIKV for travelers to these areas.

The use of labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to evaluate chronic periprosthetic joint infections: a retrospective multicentre study on 168 patients

Abstract

Labelled leucocyte scintigraphy (LS) is regarded as helpful when exploring bone and joint infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of LS for the diagnosis of chronic periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) in patients exhibiting arthroplastic loosening. One hundred sixty-eight patients were referred to centres for treatment of complex PJI. One hundred fifty underwent LS using 99mTc-HMPAO (LLS); 18 also underwent anti-granulocyte scintigraphy (AGS) and 13 additional SPECT with tomodensitometry imaging (SPECT-CT). The LS results were compared with bone scan data. For all, the final diagnoses were determined microbiologically; perioperative samples were cultured. LS values were examined, as well as sensitivity by microorganism, anatomical sites, and injected activity. LS results were also evaluated according to the current use of antibiotics or not. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of LLS were 72%, 60%, and 80%, respectively. LLS performed better than did AGS. SPECT-CT revealed the accurate locations of infections. The sensitivity of LS was not significantly affected by the causative pathogen or the injected activity. No correlation was evident between the current antibiotic treatment and the LS value. The test was more sensitive for knee (84%) than hip arthroplasty (57%) but was less specific for knee (52% vs. 75%). Sensitivity and specificity of LLS varied by the location of infection bone scan provide no additional value in PJI diagnosis. Current antibiotic treatment seems to have no influence on LS sensitivity as well as labelling leukocyte activity or pathogens responsible for chronic PJI.

Probabilistic chemotherapy in knee and hip replacement infection: the place of linezolid

Abstract

Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) can occur with a wide range of microorganisms and clinical features. After replacement surgery of prosthetic joint, prescription of probabilistic broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy is usual, while awaiting microbial culture results. The aim of our study was to describe the antibiotic susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from hip and knee PJI. The data were collected to determine the best alternative to the usual combination of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) or cefotaxime (CTX) and vancomycin (VAN). Based on a French prospective, multicenter study, we analyzed microbiological susceptibility to antibiotics of 183 strains isolated from patients with confirmed hip or knee PJI. In vitro susceptibility was evaluated: TZP+VAN, TZP+linezolid (LZD), CTX+VAN, and CTX+LZD. We also analyzed resistance to different antibiotics commonly used as oral alternatives. Among the 183 patients with PJI, 62 (34%) had a total knee prosthesis, and 121 (66%) a hip prosthesis. The main identified bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (32.2% of isolates), coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.3%), Enterobacteriaceae (14.2%), and Streptococcus (13.7%). Infections were polymicrobial for 28 (15.3%) patients. All combinations were highly effective: CTX+VAN, CTX+LZD, TZP+VAN, and TZP+LZD (93.4%, 94%, 98.4%, and 98.9% of all cases respectively). Use of LZD instead of VAN in combination with a broad-spectrum beta-lactam covers almost all of the bacteria isolated in PJI. This association should be considered in probabilistic chemotherapy, as it is particularly easy to use (oral administration and no vancomycin monitoring).

The increase of sepsis-related mortality in Italy: a nationwide study, 2003–2015

Abstract

The true burden of sepsis is largely unknown. Conventional underlying cause of death (UCoD) statistics largely underestimates sepsis-related mortality. This study aims to analyze all the conditions mentioned in the death certificates (multiple causes of death—MCoD) to estimate the nationwide burden of sepsis-related mortality in Italy, to investigate time trends and main comorbidities in sepsis-related deaths. All death certificates mentioning sepsis from 2003 to 2015 were analyzed. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for sepsis as both UCoD and MCoD, by gender and broad age groups. The ratio of the age-standardized proportions of any mention of sepsis in the presence/absence of associated chronic diseases (ASPR) was computed. The number of certificates reporting sepsis increased from 18,939 in 2003 to 49,010 in 2015 (from 3 to 8% of all deaths). The increase in sepsis mortality rates was larger for UCoD (males, + 200%; females, + 175%) than for MCoD-based figures (+ 100%; + 90%); MCoD rates remained noticeably higher than UCoD rates (2015, 87.3 per 100,000 vs. 16.3 for males; 54.9 vs. 11.8 for females). The largest increase was observed among the very elderly. The association between sepsis and chronic diseases was stronger for subjects aged less than 75 years. The increased awareness within the medical community in addition to the growing susceptible elderly population and the spread of antimicrobial resistance could have contributed to the sepsis-related mortality increase. MCoD statistics could help in recognizing sepsis not only as a clinical challenge, but also as a major public health issue.

Impact of pre-hospital antibiotic therapy on mortality in invasive meningococcal disease: a propensity score study

Abstract

The role of pre-hospital antibiotic therapy in invasive meningococcal diseases remains unclear with contradictory data. The aim was to determine this role in the outcome of invasive meningococcal disease. Observational cohort study of patients with/without pre-hospital antibiotic therapy in invasive meningococcal disease attended at the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge (Barcelona) during the period 1977–2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses of mortality, corrected by propensity score used as a covariate to adjust for potential confounding, were performed. Patients with pre-hospital antibiotic therapy were also analyzed according to whether they had received oral (group A) or parenteral antibiotics (early therapy) (group B). Five hundred twenty-seven cases of invasive meningococcal disease were recorded and 125 (24%) of them received pre-hospital antibiotic therapy. Shock and age were the risk factors independently related to mortality. Mortality differed between patients with/without pre-hospital antibiotic therapy (0.8% vs. 8%, p = 0.003). Pre-hospital antibiotic therapy seemed to be a protective factor in the multivariate analysis of mortality (p = 0.038; OR, 0.188; 95% CI, 0.013–0.882). However, it was no longer protective when the propensity score was included in the analysis (p = 0.103; OR, 0.173; 95% CI, 0.021–1.423). Analysis of the oral and parenteral pre-hospital antibiotic groups revealed that there were no deaths in early therapy group. Patients able to receive oral antibiotics had less severe symptoms than those who did not receive pre-hospital antibiotics. Age and shock were the factors independently related to mortality. Early parenteral therapy was not associated with death. Oral antibiotic therapy in patients able to take it was associated with a beneficial effect in the prognosis of invasive meningococcal disease.

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