Δευτέρα, 19 Αυγούστου 2019

Thwarting the Opiate Crisis: Emerging Recommendations to Reduce Opiate Abuse
imageNo abstract available
Putting Positive Pressure on Ambulatory Surgery Criteria: Sleep Apnea and Short-Term Outcomes
imageNo abstract available
Sample Size and Power in Clinical Research
imageNo abstract available
Defining and Reducing the Risk of Persistent Postoperative Opioid Use
No abstract available
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Ambulatory Surgery: Who Is Truly at Risk?
No abstract available
Enough But Not Too Much: Monitoring for Neuraxial Morphine-Associated Respiratory Depression in Obstetric Patients
No abstract available
Too Early for a Narrative Review?
No abstract available
Development of a Rescue Echocardiography Protocol for Noncardiac Surgery Patients
imageIntraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a helpful diagnostic tool when hemodynamic compromise is encountered during noncardiac surgery. At our institution, a Rescue Echo Protocol was created to provide a structured means for requesting and performing a rescue TEE. We analyzed our institutional utilization of this service and found that it was used throughout the spectrum of patients’ American Society of Anesthesiologists classifications and surgical services. We demonstrated that 72.9% of rescue examinations resulted in a change in management, supporting the use of TEE as a diagnostic tool during hemodynamic compromise.
Anticoagulation Management and Heparin Resistance During Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Survey of Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Members
imageWe surveyed Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists members regarding anticoagulation practices for cardiopulmonary bypass and attitudes on heparin resistance. Of 550 respondents (18.5% response rate), 74.9% (95% CI, 71.3%–78.5%) used empiric weight-based dosing of heparin, and 70.7% (95% CI, 66.9%–74.5%) targeted an activated clotting time of either 400 or 480 seconds to initiate cardiopulmonary bypass. Of note, 17.1% (95% CI, 13.9%–20.2%) of respondents reported activated clotting time targets lower than those recommended by recent 2018 Society of Thoracic Surgeons/Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists/American Society of Extracorporeal Technology guidelines or failed to monitor heparin effects at all. When heparin resistance was encountered, 54.2% of respondents (95% CI, 50.0%–58.4%) administered antithrombin concentrates as a first-line therapy.
Prohemostatic Activity of Factor X in Combination With Activated Factor VII in Dilutional Coagulopathy
imageBACKGROUND: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) concentrate reduces allogeneic blood transfusions, but it may increase thromboembolic complications in complex cardiac surgery. The mixture of activated factor VII (FVIIa) and factor X (FX) (FVIIa/FX) (FVIIa:FX = 1:10) is a novel bypassing agent for hemophilia patients. We hypothesized that the combination of FX and FVIIa could improve thrombin generation (TG) in acquired multifactorial coagulation defects such as seen in cardiac surgery and conducted in vitro evaluation of FVIIa/FX in parallel with other coagulation factor concentrates using in vitro and in vivo diluted plasma samples. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from 9 healthy volunteers and 12 cardiac surgical patients. We measured TG (Thrombinoscope) using in vitro 50% dilution plasma and in vivo dilution plasma after cardiopulmonary bypass, in parallel with thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and standard coagulation assays. In vitro additions of FVIIa/FX (0.35, 0.7, and 1.4 μg/mL, based on the FVIIa level), rFVIIa (1.4, 2.8, and 6.4 μg/mL), prothrombin complex concentrate (0.3 international unit), and 20% plasma replacement were evaluated. RESULTS: In diluted plasma, the addition of either FVIIa/FX or rFVIIa shortened the lag time and increased the peak TG, but the effect in lag time of FVIIa/FX at 0.35 μg/mL was more extensive than rFVIIa at 6.4 μg/mL. Prothrombin complex concentrate increased peak TG by increasing the prothrombin level but failed to shorten the lag time. No improvement in any of the TG variables was observed after 20% volume replacement with plasma. The addition of factor concentrates normalized prothrombin time/international normalized ratio but not with plasma replacement. In cardiac patients, similar patterns were observed on TG in post–cardiopulmonary bypass samples. FVIIa/FX shortened clotting time (CT) in a concentration-dependent manner on CT on thromboelastometry. Plasma replacement did not improve CT, but a combination of plasma and FVIIa/FX (0.35 μg/mL) more effectively shortened CT than FVIIa/FX alone. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of FVIIa and FX improved TG more efficiently than rFVIIa alone or plasma in dilutional coagulopathy models. The required FVIIa dose in FVIIa/FX was considerably lower than those reported during bypassing therapy in hemophilia patients (1.4–2.8 μg/mL). The combination of plasma could restore coagulation more efficiently compared to FVIIa/FX alone. Lesser FVIIa requirement to exert procoagulant activity may be favorable in terms of reducing systemic thromboembolic complications.

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου