Τρίτη, 22 Οκτωβρίου 2019

Specific challenges in end-of-life care for patients with hematological malignancies
Purpose of review The disease-related burden of patients with hematological malignancies is comparable with patients suffering from solid tumors. Palliative care offers relief from suffering independent of type of disease and prognosis. The prevalence of hematological malignancies is expected to increase in the next 20 years because of better therapeutic options with longer survival and because of the aging population. However, patients with hematological malignancies are underrepresented in palliative care as these diseases are associated with special care needs and prognostic uncertainty, which differ from the unambiguity of terminally ill patients with solid tumors. This review describes the recent studies and guidelines addressing the problems in palliative care for patients with hematological malignancies. Recent findings Recent research covers prognostic uncertainty, challenges in terms of the acute death setting, and blood transfusions in the terminally ill as well as interdisciplinary collaboration. In addition to qualitative approaches exploring reasons for these challenges, criteria that indicate the approaching end of life in hematological malignancies were systematically developed and tested. Further, the effectiveness of palliative care addressing the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting was further analyzed. Summary The patients’ perspective needs to be involved in future research to examine whether the connotation of ‘palliative care’ is a barrier for patients, families or healthcare professionals. Communication culture and skills have already been identified as goals for medical training. Further studies should identify the effective elements of palliative care specific for hematological malignancies and develop feasible support models, including informal caregivers. Correspondence to Christina Gerlach, MD, MSc, Interdisciplinary Department of Palliative Care, III. Department of Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, Geb. 407, 55131 Mainz, Germany. Tel: +49 6131 175931; e-mail: christina.gerlach@unimedizin-mainz.de Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Merging therapeutics and supportive care: synergy and yield
No abstract available
Expanding the indications for autologous stem cell transplantation: do we need a new approach to supportive care for patients with multiple sclerosis?
No abstract available
Meaningful measures in cancer cachexia: implications for practice and research
Purpose of review Cancer cachexia is a complex inflammatory syndrome, which presents with a variety of discrete symptoms and signs. This creates a challenge for both clinicians and researchers in recognizing and assessing the syndrome. This review explores the evidence for various measures used in the assessment of cachexia. Recent findings Objectively, cachexia may be assessed using CT-derived measures of skeletal muscle [skeletal muscle index (SMI) and skeletal muscle density (SMD)]. Evidence suggests that SMD may be of equal or greater value than SMI in assessing cachexia. Inflammatory markers are also used, and include interleukin(IL)-1α; IL-1β; IL-6 and Interferon Gamma (IFNγ). Other robust measures include performance status and the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS). These measures, however, are more commonly used in academia. By comparison, clinical assessment is limited to individual measures of patient function, such as hand grip strength (HGS), calf circumference, gait speed, and the ‘timed up and go test’ (TUG). These have each been linked with components of cachexia but are less well evidenced. Evidence also exists for patient-reported quality-of-life measures, based upon the EORTC- QLQ-C30 questionnaire, in assessing cachexia. Summary Further assessment is required to compare clinical measures of cachexia and determine their utility. Correspondence to James J. McDonald, Edinburgh Medical School (Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine), University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XR, UK. Tel: +44 131 651 8611; e-mail: jamesmcd96@googlemail.com Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Autologous haematopoietic stem cell therapy for multiple sclerosis: a review for supportive care clinicians on behalf of the Autoimmune Diseases Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Purpose of review In this review, we summarize the recently published literature that demonstrates the efficacy and safety of autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and highlight the importance of supportive care required for the safe and well-tolerated delivery of AHSCT. Recent findings MS is an autoimmune inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). In the majority of patients, the illness runs a relapsing remitting course (RRMS), culminating in a secondary progressive phase with gradual accumulation of fixed disabilities. Currently available disease-modifying therapies suppress CNS inflammation but have a limited effect on preventing disease progression for which there remains no effective therapy. Over the last two decades, there has been increasing evidence that AHSCT is a highly effective therapeutic strategy for treatment-resistant inflammatory types of MS, especially RRMS. Concerns about the safety of AHSCT in MS, usually a nonlife-threatening disease, have previously limited its use. However, AHSCT can now be delivered safely with major long-term benefits because of increasing transplant centre experience, judicious patient selection and good supportive care. Summary MS is currently the fastest growing indication for AHSCT in Europe. Supportive care before, during and after the transplant period is key to its successful delivery of AHSCT. Correspondence to John A. Snowden, Chair ADWP, Department of Haematology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, S10 2JF, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 114 271 1900; e-mail: john.snowden1@nhs.net Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Withdrawing noninvasive ventilation at end-of-life care: is there a right time?
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is the ‘when’ and ‘how’ of the matter of withdrawing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) at end-of-life (EoL) setting, having in mind the implications for patients, families and healthcare team. Recent findings Several recent publications raised the place and potential applications of NIV at EoL setting. However, there are no clear guidelines about when and how to withdraw NIV in these patients. Continuing NIV in a failing clinical condition may unnecessarily prolong the dying process. This is particularly relevant as frequently, EoL discussions are started only when patients are in severe distress, and they have little time to discuss their preferences and decisions. Summary Better advanced chronic disease and EoL condition definitions, as well as identification of possible scenarios, should help to decision-making and find the appropriate time to initiate, withhold and withdraw NIV. This review emphasized the relevance of an integrated approach across illness’ trajectories and key transitions of patients who will need EoL care and such sustaining support measure. Correspondence to Vilma A. Tripodoro, Combatientes de Malvinas 3150, 1427 Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Tel: +5491150435885; e-mail: vilma.tripodoro@gmail.com Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cancer cachexia in thoracic malignancy: a narrative review
Purpose of review Thoracic malignancies are amongst the most lethal of all cancers. Cancer cachexia lacks unanimously accepted diagnostic criteria, and therefore is referenced to as a conceptual framework whereby cancer cachexia is ‘an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass (termed sarcopenia), with or without loss of fat mass that cannot be reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment’. This review summarises the current evidence base in this field, including imaging techniques currently used to define sarcopenia, inflammatory and metabolic changes associated with the syndrome and ongoing research into potential treatment strategies. Recent findings Sarcopenia is a key component of the cancer cachexia syndrome. It is common in patients with both early-stage and advanced NSCLC. Patients with sarcopenia have more treatment-related side effects and poorer overall survival compared with nonsarcopenic patients. Summary Early identification of cancer cachexia may facilitate stratification of patients most-at-risk and initiation of emerging anticachexia treatments. If these are proven to be effective, this strategy has the potential to improve tolerance to anti-cancer therapies, improving the quality of life, and perhaps the survival, of patients with thoracic malignancies. Correspondence to Dr Andrew C. Kidd, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G51 4TF, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 141 451 6163; e-mail: andrew.kidd@nhs.net Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Death rattle: reassuring harbinger of imminent death or a perfect example of inadequacies in evidence-based practice
Purpose of review Death is the inevitable consequence of life. Although clinicians are unlikely to accurately pinpoint when death is likely to occur in the people they care for, the death in a person with a diagnosis of malignant and nonmalignant tends to involve a period of predictable progressive clinical and functional deterioration. During this time, it is common for death rattle to occur. Due to its presentation, death rattle can cause stress and distress to caregivers. This often prompts clinicians to consider medical interventions that are not only ineffective in treating the problem but may also do harm. Recent findings There is a dearth of research related to the management of death rattle. Summary The article discusses the existing evidence in the management of death rattle, considerations for clinicians in the absence of reliable evidence and suggests areas for future research. Correspondence to Prof Bridget Johnston, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing, and NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, 57-61 Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LL, UK. Tel: +44 0 141 330 3691; e-mail: Bridget.Johnston@glasgow.ac.uk Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Endocrinopathies and cancer cachexia
Purpose of review Cancer cachexia cannot be easily reversed by standard nutritional support and interventions directed at underlying metabolic derangements may be needed to prevent or reverse cachexia and maintain healthy body composition. The following review will highlight the contribution and potential therapeutic interventions for insulin resistance, alterations in ghrelin signaling, and hypogonadism in cancer patients. Recent findings In addition to decreased caloric intake, chronic inflammation, and altered metabolism of glucose, proteins and lipids, endocrine abnormalities can propagate weight loss or changes in body composition in cancer patients. Summary Cancer cachexia, loss of muscle mass with or without the loss of fat mass, is a multifactorial syndrome, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, limited therapeutic options for the treatment of weight loss in cancer patients exist, which lead to clinically meaningful improvements in weight gain and performance status. Treatment directed at underlying insulin resistance, low testosterone, and altered ghrelin sensitivity, in the future, may lead to potential therapeutic options for loss of lean body mass and cancer cachexia. Correspondence to Rony Dev, Symptom Control & Palliative Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas, 77030, USA. Tel: +1 713 792 1173; fax: +1 713 792 6092; e-mail: rdev@mdanderson.org Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Measuring the success of interventions for caregivers: a focussed systematic review
Purpose of review The selection and application of outcome measures are fundamental steps in the research process because they inform decisions around intervention efficacy. We aimed to describe the outcomes used in trials of supportive interventions for adult caregivers of people with three exemplar life-limiting conditions: heart failure, dementia or stroke. Recent findings We performed a focussed review of 134 published trials that included interventions designed to improve caregivers’ health and wellbeing and/or ability to function in their caring role. We extracted and categorized all caregiver outcomes described in the studies. We identified inconsistency in the outcomes measured; frequent use of bespoke and adapted tools (29% of outcomes were bespoke), and a lack of clarity in outcome priorities (the mean number of outcomes per trial was four [range: 1–11]). Outcome scales that purport to measure the psychological impact of the caring role were the most popular tools in all three caregiver groups. Summary Outcomes used in trials related to adult caregivers are characterized by inconsistencies in outcome measure selection and assessment. This heterogeneity complicates comparisons of treatments and attempts to pool data. Correspondence to Maria Drummond, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing, University of Glasgow, 57-61 Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LL, Scotland, UK. Tel: +44 791 298 1031; e-mail: m.drummond.1@research.gla.ac.uk Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.supportiveandpalliativecare.com). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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